10th Class Computer Science Notes in English / Chapter-1 / Problem Solving
Problem solving is a skill, developed by adopting a well defined and well organized approach in the process of identification of a problem and finding its best solution. It has the following steps:
- Problem Identification
- Specify requirements
- Analyze the Problem
- Design Algorithm & Flow Chart
- Write Program (Coding)
- Test & Debug the Program
- Implement the Program
- Maintain & Update the Program
- Document the Program
- Define Problem Identification.
Answer: The problem being solved is observed carefully. Major concerned areas are identified and irrelevant information is filtered out.
- Define Desk Checking.
Answer: Desk checking is the process of carefully observing the working of an algorithm on the paper, for some test data. Algorithm is provided a varying set of input for which the output is examined.
- Define Flow Chart.
Answer: A flow chart is a pictorial representation of an algorithm. It is a visual representation of the flow of data of a program, the operations performed in the system and the sequence in which they are performed.
- Define Algorithm.
Answer: An algorithm is a finite set of steps which if followed, accomplish a particular task. It consists of a sequence of a finite number of steps for the solution of a particular problem.
- What do you mean by Strategy for Developing an Algorithm?
Answer: An algorithm development involves the following three steps to carry out. 1) Investigation, 2) Preliminary / Initial Algorithm, 3) Refining the Algorithm
- Write Two Advantages of Flow Chart.
Answer: 1) Flow charts are part of the design document, that is why maintenance of operational programs becomes easy.
2) Flow chart acts as a guide for program development.
3) It helps in the debugging process.
4) The logic of the solution of the problem can be easily understandable
- What do you mean by Coding / Write the Program means what?
Answer: The process of writing a program using any programming language is called coding.
- Define Bug.
Answer: Error in a program is also known as a Bug. There are three types of errors. 1) Syntax Errors 2) Runtime Errors 3) Logical Errors
- Define Debugging.
Answer: It is the process of finding and removing errors in the program. There are three types of errors. 1) Syntax Errors 2) Runtime Errors 3) Logical Errors
- Define Syntax.
Answer: Rules to write a program using a programming language are called syntax of that programming language.
e.g. in GW-BASIC, printing a message to console is done by using the command:
PRINT “I love CodeNeat!”
- How Many Types of Bugs?
Answer: Bug is also known as error in a program. There are three types of errors. 1) Syntax Errors 2) Runtime Errors 3) Logical Errors
- Difference Between Logical Error and syntax Error.
Answer: Logical Error: Logical error occurs when a program follows a wrong logic. These are the most difficult errors to locate because they are not identified by the translator. The programmer should itself scan the program lines to locate and fix it. e.g writing the “+” operator instead of a “-” operator in a statement.
Syntax Error: A syntax error occurs when a program violates one or more grammatical rules of the programming language. These errors are detected at the stage of program compilation. e.g. writing PINT instead of PRINT in GW-Basic.
- Define Run Time Error.
Answer: A run-time error occurs when program directs the computer to execute an illegal or undefined operation. When run-time error occurs, computer stops executing the program and displays a diagnostic message that helps in locating the error. Dived a number by zero or using a color statement is screen 2 are the important causes of run-time error.
- Why it is difficult to remove Logical Error ?
Answer: Logical error occurs when a program follows a wrong logic. These are the most difficult errors to locate because they are not identified by the translator. Translator does not give any error message for a logical error. The programmer should itself scan the program lines to locate and fix it. e.g writing the “+” operator instead of a “-” operator in a statement.
- Define Problem Analysis.
Answer: In problem analysis, we concentrate on the concerned problem more closely to solve it in an easiest way. It is an important stage of problem solving in which a problem is decomposed into smaller sub problems. Rather on concentrating problem as a whole, the smaller problems are solved and merged to get the solution of actual problem.
- Define Documentation of Program.
Answer: Program documentation is complete and comprehensive details about the program coding, its variables, their usage and output, installation method, usage methods, and modification of the program as per requirement etc. Documentation is considered vital in the problem-solving process. It helps to operate and understand the program easily. It describes how the input data is identified and how the output is formatted.
- Define Limitations of Flow Chart.
Answer: 1) Flow chart for a complex problem is difficult to draw.
2) Flow chart is to be redrawn, in case of any changing required in it.
- Define a Program.
Answer: A program is a set of instructions given to a computer to solve a particular problem. It is written in a programming language.